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obaasan
11-02-2012, 04:57 PM
Eye circlesEye circles are distinguished circles around the eyes, caused by either:

Periorbital dark circles[/URL]
Periorbital puffiness[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_puffiness"] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_dark_circles)

obaasan
11-02-2012, 05:00 PM
Periorbital dark circlesPeriorbital dark circles (also dark circles or raccoon attack) are dark blemishes around the eyes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_eye). There are many causes of this symptom, including heredity[/URL] and bruising (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heredity).

Causes
HeredityIn most cases, the dark circles under the eyes are blood vessels that can be seen through the skin. The skin around the eyelids (periorbital skin) is the thinnest skin in the body (around 0.5 mm thick compared with 2 mm in other areas). Like varicose veins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varicose_veins), dark circles under the eyes are usually an inherited (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heredity) trait[citation needed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)]. When blood passes through the large veins close to the surface of the skin, it can produce a bluish tint. The more transparent the skin—also an inherited trait—the darker the circles appear. In people with a deep-set bone structure, shadowing can also contribute to the dark color under the eyes.

Allergies, asthma, and eczemaAny condition that causes the eyes to itch can contribute to darker circles due to rubbing or scratching the skin around them. Hay fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hay_fever) sufferers in particular will notice under-eye "smudges" during the height of the allergy season. Some food allergies can also cause the area under the eyes to appear darker.

MedicationsAny medications that cause blood vessels to dilate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasodilation) can cause circles under the eyes to darken. Because the skin under the eyes is very delicate, any increased blood flow shows through the skin.

AnemiaThe lack of nutrients in the diet, or the lack of a balanced diet, can contribute to the discoloration of the area under the eyes. It is believed that a lack of mineral iron (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_deficiency) can cause dark circles as well. Iron deficiency is the most common type of anemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anemia) and this condition is a sign that not enough oxygen is getting to the body tissues.
The skin can also become more pale during pregnancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy) and menstruation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstruation) (due to lack of iron), allowing the underlying veins under the eyes to become more visible.

FatigueA lack of sleep or excessive tiredness can cause paleness of the skin, allowing the blood underneath the skin to become more visible and appear bluer or darker

Liver problemsDark circles under eyes can be symptom of liver disease

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_disease)Age (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_disease)Dark circles are likely to become more noticeable and permanent with age. This is because as people get older, their skin loses collagen, becoming thinner and more translucent. Circles may also gradually begin to appear darker in one eye than the other as a result of some habitual facial expressions, such as an uneven smile

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_disease)Periorbital hyperpigmentationPeriorbital hyperpigmentation is the official name for when there is more melanin produced around the eyes than is usual, giving them a darker color.

TreatmentThere is no way of curing or reducing dark circles, but applying an eye cream that contains [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_K"]vitamin K (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_disease) and retinol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinol) is thought to help. Recent research has shown that skin creams containing these two ingredients reduce puffiness and discoloration significantly in many patients. Make-up (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Make-up) can also be used to change the coloration of any exposed skin. Some dermatologists may recommend a hydroquinone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroquinone) solution often mixed in an oil free moisturizer that acts like a skin bleach

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_disease)

obaasan
11-02-2012, 05:02 PM
Periorbital puffiness
Periorbital puffiness, also known as "puffy eyes" or swelling around the eyes, refers to the appearance of swelling in the tissues around the eyes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_eye), called the orbits (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbit_(anatomy)). It is almost exclusively caused by fluid buildup around the eyes, or periorbital edema (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edema). Minor puffiness usually detectable below the eyes only is often called eye bags.

Causes
While some degree of puffiness may be normal for a given individual, factors such as age and fatigue may make the swelling more prominent. The periorbital tissues are most noticeably swollen immediately after waking, perhaps due to the gravitational redistribution of fluid in the horizontal position.
Eye puffiness may also be caused by:

Mononucleosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_mononucleosis) - With supra-orbital oedema, the eyes become puffy and swollen. This may occur in the early stages of infection.


Oversleeping/sleep deprivation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_deprivation) - Interrupted sleep cycles are common causes of eye puffiness.


Fluid retention - Many conditions (including pregnancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy) and hormonal variations with menstruation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstruation)) can lead to the retention of fluid, particularly in thesubcutaneous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcutaneous) tissues. These conditions can cause swelling around the eyes to be more prominent.


Diet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diet_(nutrition)) - Excess salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt) encourages fluid retention and may lead to puffy eyes.


Alcohol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol) and tobacco (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco) use - Alcohol and tobacco contain toxins that may lead to stress, fatigue, and hormonal changes; all of which may lead to fluid retention and swelling around the eyes.


Allergies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allergy) - Allergic reactions can lead to leaks in the subcutaneous capillary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capillary) beds which can cause swelling in the face, including around the eyes.


Skin disorders - Eye puffiness can be a side effect of certain skin disorders, such as dermatitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatitis), if the affected area becomes very sensitive, leading to swelling.


Normal aging (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aging) - As a person grows older, the skin around the eyes becomes thinner and may swell or droop.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_puffiness#cite_note-0)


Crying (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crying) - The salt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt) in tears (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tears) may cause fluid retention in the eye area.


Hypothyroidism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothyroidism) - Facial puffiness and periorbital swelling occur due to inflitration with the mucopolysaccharides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucopolysaccharides) hyaluronic acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyaluronic_acid) and chondroitin sulfate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondroitin_sulfate),[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_puffiness#cite_note-1) pulling fluid into the interstitial space (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstitial_space_(biology)) byosmosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmosis).


Periorbital cellulitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_cellulitis) - An inflammation and infection of the eyelid and portions of skin around the eye.


Chagas disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagas_disease) - Also known as American trypanosomiasis. Young patients, often in an acute phase of the disease, manifest Romaña's sign: unilateral, painless, periorbital edema.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_puffiness#cite_note-2)


Nephrotic syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephrotic_syndrome) - Puffiness around the eyes is the first site to get swollen


Trichinosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichinosis) - Periorbital edema, fever and muscle pain are the main symptoms that ensue from eating raw, infected pork.


Tear glands - Puffiness around the eyes can also be due to the improper functioning of the tear glands.

RisksPuffy eyes are usually only a temporary cosmetic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics) worry, but occasionally, individuals become concerned about the cosmetic effect of periorbital swelling and seek surgical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_surgery) correction. Severe and persistent puffiness may be a sign of other serious medical conditions.

RemediesFor someone predisposed to eye puffiness, changes to diet and lifestyle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lifestyle_(sociology)) (under the supervision of a physician (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physician)) may be required to reduce the possibility of swelling. A cold compress near the eye can act as a short-term remedy as cold temperature constricts blood vessels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vessels), preventing the flow of fluid into tissues and diminishing puffiness in the process.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periorbital_puffiness#cite_note-3) A natural astringent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astringent), such as wet tea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea) bags, a sliced cucumber (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucumber), or even potato (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato) can also provide short-term relief

PreventionElevating the head while sleeping can prevent the gravitational redistribution of fluid that is associated with eye swelling. A low-carb diet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-carb_diet) can prevent eye puffiness by preventing water retention. Eating foods (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food) rich in vitamins, especially A (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_A), C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_C) and E (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_E), helps to reduce eye puffiness and to maintain clear, moist skin

obaasan
11-02-2012, 05:05 PM
How to Get Rid of Black Circles Under Your Eyes (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes)


Dark circles under the eyes tend to age us more than wrinkles or grey hair.[1] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-0)Discoloration of the under-eye skin affects many of us from time to time. For others, the dark circles can persist as a long-term feature, sometimes as a result of an illness, but often as a result of allergies, inadequate sleep, and even heredity. However, you can still minimize the appearance of dark circles under your eyes and in some cases remove them completely.

Steps


Get your beauty sleep.

(http://www.wikihow.com/Sleep-for-Better-Health)Get plenty of sleep nightly. It’s not entirely clear why inadequate sleep results in dark circles under the eyes, but lack of sleep tends to cause the skin to become paler (thus increasing the appearance of darkness under the eyes), and reduces circulation.[2] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-1) It’s also believed that too little time lying down is a cause in itself.

Determine how much sleep you need (it’s usually 7-9 hours per night, but varies for different people at different times throughout their lives). Try to get that amount regularly for a couple of weeks to see if that helps.
Alcohol and drugs can adversely affect the quality of your sleep. Abstain from these products or use them only in moderation for best results.
Get adequate vitamins that assist sleep. A lack of sleep, coupled with poor vitamin absorption tends to reduce adrenal function. The less adrenal function you have, the less B6 you tend to absorb. The less B6 you absorb, the less your adrenal glands function and you end up in a vicious circle. Sleep, regular vitamins (where needed), good calcium/magnesium support in the form of eating a lot of greens (which are higher in calcium and magnesium than dairy products are) and a good mineral supplement restores adrenal function.
Reduce your stress to help you to sleep more.
Eat well. Eat a healthy, balanced diet, take vitamins, and drink plenty of water. A whole host of cosmetic problems can be attributed to vitamin deficiencies. Dark circles and puffiness are often attributed to lack of vitamin K or inadequate antioxidants. Also, a deficiency in B12 (usually anemia-related) can result in dark circles.

Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, especially cabbage, spinach, and other leafy green vegetables. Take a daily vitamin supplement if necessary. Get adequate fluids to improve circulation.
Reduce salt intake. Excess salt causes the body to retain water in unusual places, and this can result in puffiness under the eyes. Too much salt can also impair your circulation and cause the blood vessels under the skin to appear bluer.
Examine your smoking habit and decide to quit. Smoking causes vascular (blood vessel) problems that can not only threaten your life, but also make your blood vessels appear more prominent and bluer.

Relax more. Relaxing might help remove sources of stress and anxiety that are preventing you from sleeping, eating and resting properly. In turn, relaxing enough will help your eye skin to improve as you feel less stressed and more at ease. Skin tends to reflect a whole host of emotional and physical ailments, so don't dismiss the need to relax lightly.





Natural Remedies



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http://pad2.whstatic.com/images/thumb/2/29/3114514_f173148d46.jpg/170px-3114514_f173148d46.jpg (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:3114514_f173148d46.jpg)




http://pad2.whstatic.com/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:3114514_f173148d46.jpg) Cucumber Therapy

Slice cucumbers into thick slices. Cucumber slices have long been used to reduce puffiness and refresh the appearance of skin around the eyes, providing a fast "pick-me-up" for tired and puffy eyes. Place a slice over each eye, extending over the darkened area. Do this daily, coupled with lying down for 10-15 minutes. Keep your eyes closed.



2
Apply cool tea bags or an ice cube wrapped in soft cloth to your eyes daily. The tannin in tea bags reduces swelling and discoloration. Lie down, preferably in the morning, and leave the cool and damp caffeinated tea bags over your eyes for about 10-15 minutes. Keep your eyes closed. You can refrigerate them overnight so they will be ready in the morning.



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http://pad3.whstatic.com/images/thumb/1/1e/Black-stencil-of-an-eye-and-eyebrow.jpg/200px-Black-stencil-of-an-eye-and-eyebrow.jpg (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:Black-stencil-of-an-eye-and-eyebrow.jpg)




http://pad2.whstatic.com/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:Black-stencil-of-an-eye-and-eyebrow.jpg) Make a saline solution.

Make a saline solution. Add 2 cups water with a 1/4 teaspoon of sea salt[3] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-2) and/or a half tea-spoon of baking soda in one of your nostrils. Have your head tilted to the side so that the water comes out the other nostril. It's best used when you're experiencing nasal congestion.



4
Use a potato. Place one uncooked potato into a liquidizer and liquidize the whole potato. Scoop out and place the pureed potato on your closed eyes .Keep it there for 30 minutes, lying on your back. Wash it off with warm water. This method works well for some people.



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http://pad2.whstatic.com/images/thumb/1/13/Spoon-in-the-Road.jpg/184px-Spoon-in-the-Road.jpg (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:Spoon-in-the-Road.jpg)




http://pad2.whstatic.com/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:Spoon-in-the-Road.jpg) Pop it in the fridge and you'll be ready to go!

Use a frozen spoon. Put a spoon in the freezer for 10-15 minutes. Take it out and cover the circles with it. Hold it there until the spoon is warm again.



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http://pad2.whstatic.com/images/thumb/0/02/Designer-Saturdays--5.jpg/200px-Designer-Saturdays--5.jpg (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:Designer-Saturdays--5.jpg)




http://pad2.whstatic.com/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:Designer-Saturdays--5.jpg) Assess the cause of your black circles.

Assess the cause of your black circles. If you have an underlying health condition, this may be a large part of the black circles under your eyes. If the problem has been ongoing, consider seeing a doctor to discuss the possible causes before attempting to remedy the problem. Some things that might be causing your under-eye discoloration include:

Allergies (http://www.wikihow.com/Live-With-Food-Allergies). Allergies are a common cause of skin discoloration under the eyes.[4] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-3) If an allergy is the root of your problem, treat the allergy or remove the allergen (http://www.wikihow.com/Avoid-Allergens) Seasonal allergy problems such as the hay fever can frequently be effectively treated with over-the-counter and prescription medications.
For other allergies, the best course of action is usually avoidance. If your dark circles or puffiness are constant, you may have an undetected food allergy or an allergy to a chemical in your home or workplace. Talk to a dermatologist for help determining what you may be allergic to. People with allergies also tend again to be deficient in B6, folic acid and B12 on occasion. Taking a multivitamin may also help
Gluten intolerance (http://www.wikihow.com/Know-if-You-Are-Gluten-Intolerant). Another common allergy that causes dark circles is gluten intolerance, which is an allergy to wheat flour in particular. More severely, you could have celiac disease. To test for celiac disease, have blood tests performed by your doctor. It's important to remember that you can be gluten intolerant, and not have celiac disease.
Nasal congestion. A blocked nose can result in dark circles under your eyes because the veins that drain from your eyes to your nose are darkened and dilated.[5] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-4)
Pigmentation irregularities. These can cause darker circles under the eyes.
Sun exposure. This can increase melanin production.[6] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-5)
Thinning from age. Aging thins the skin, making veins and vessels more obvious as your fat and collagen depletes over time.[7] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-6)
Heredity. Establish whether or not this condition runs in your family, as under-eye dark circles are believed to frequently be hereditary.[8] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-7) This doesn’t mean that you can’t do anything about the conditions, but you should be prepared for minimal success when trying to get rid of them.
Your facial features. Dark circles may be as simple as shadows being thrown by your own features.[9] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-8) There isn't much you can do change this other than careful use of cosmetics.



Cosmetic Solutions



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http://pad3.whstatic.com/images/7/72/6567_2_122.jpg (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:6567_2_122.jpg)




http://pad2.whstatic.com/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://www.wikihow.com/Image:6567_2_122.jpg) Apply an eye cream containing vitamin K and retinol.

Apply an eye cream containing vitamin K and retinol. Dark circles may be caused by a deficiency of vitamin K. Regardless of the cause, however, skin creams containing these two ingredients reduce puffiness and discoloration significantly in many people. Long-term daily use seems to have the greatest effect.[10] (http://www.wikihow.com/Get-Rid-of-Black-Circles-Under-Your-Eyes#_note-9)



2
Use an under-eye cream. Use a concealer that will camouflage the dark under-eye circles. It's important to use a concealer that matches your undertone (namely, yellow and peach (for bluish circles). After applying the concealer, set it with a light dusting of translucent powder.



3
Have a skin patc test. Before using cosmetics, try a skin patch test (http://www.wikihow.com/Patch-Test-Skin) first. Cease using anything that irritates your skin, causes rashes, or makes your eyes sore or watery.