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eugene
20-08-2012, 11:07 AM
preposition + relative pronoun


A wide range of prepositions are often used in prepositional structures with relative pronouns who and which to introduce relative clauses. In most cases, the prepositions retain their original meaning. Compare the following:




That post marks the beginning of the mined area, beyond which it is inadvisable to go.


In the clearing lay the badly injured soldier, above whom birds of prey were circling.


We passed a giant toadstool in the forest, under which fairies were sitting.


They had collected the sap from the sugar maple trees, from which maple syrup is manufactured.


Before us we could see a forest orchid of which there are many varieties.


An Austrian naturalist, with whom I worked closely in the Eighties, discovered this particular orchid.


Note that when the relative pronoun is placed immediately after the preposition we can't use who instead of whom, and we can't use that or zero pronoun either.


http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv286.shtml

eugene
20-08-2012, 11:08 AM
position of prepositions

Note that in questions the preposition is more frequently placed at the end of the clause. It can also be placed before the relative pronoun where it sounds more formal:



In which street does he live?

Which street does he live in?


He lives in the street where all the houses are surrounded by high fences.
He lives in the street in which the houses are surrounded by high fences


For which organisation does he work?
Which organisation does he work for?


He works for a spy network, about which I know nothing.
He works for a spy network (which) I know nothing about.


Note from examples above and below that putting the preposition at the end of the clause is usually also possible in statements:


The people with whom he worked have all been arrested. (Formal)
The people (who) he worked with have all been arrested. (Informal)

This is the bedroom in which he was murdered. (Formal)
This is the bedroom (that) he was murdered in. (Informal)

Note from these examples, that in statements when the preposition is placed at the end of the clause, we can use that instead of who or which or we can omit the relative pronoun completely!

eugene
20-08-2012, 11:09 AM
where / in which / at which

In which and at which are sometimes used as more precise sounding alternatives to where to introduce relative clauses after nouns referring to place:


Near where I live there's a wood where you can find woodpeckers.

Near where I live there's a wood in which you can find woodpeckers.
The fancy-dress party, where the men all turned up as gangsters, was held in Manhatten.
The fancy-dress party, at which the men all turned up as gangsters, was held in Manhatten.


when / on which
On which is sometimes used as a more precise sounding alternative to when to introduce relative clauses after nouns referring to time:


The day when I'm forced to give up riding will be a sad day for me.

The day on which I'm forced to give up riding will be a sad day for me.

eugene
20-08-2012, 11:12 AM
Generally "whose" is equivalent to "of whom", "of who", "belonging to whom". It is sometimes difficult and 'awkward' to use the "of" form, in many cases that form is not used at all. In following examples, the other wording would be something like the following...

Whose car is that? = Whose is that car? = "The car of whom is that?" or "Of whom is that car?" - but those constructions are never used. A possible re-phrasing is "To whom does that car belong?" or "Who does that car belong to?"

In a similar way, "Mine/my" is equivalent to "of me", but "of me" is not used in many types of sentence. You could say "That is my car" or "That car is mine" or "That car belongs to me", but you cannot say "That is the car of me".

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"Whose" is also equivalent to "of which", when you are talking about an inanimate 'owner', especially as a relative pronoun. For example:

The house, whose windows are broken, is on the hill.
The house, the windows of which are broken, is on the hill.

In questions, it would be "of what" or "what's":

"The windows are broken."
(reply) "The windows of what are broken?" or (spoken, informal) "What's windows are broken?"
(answer)"The windows of the house are broken." or "The house's windows are broken."

Some grammar books (especially older ones, written in the early 20th century) say that this is not correct, and you should always use "of which" or "of what" when referring to an inanimate 'owner'. Other grammar books say that you can use either "whose" or "of which" or "what's" or "of what".