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Chủ đề: 40. Can/could I? May I? Can/could you?

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    Re: Modal verbs

    Bài 40. CAN/ COULD I? MAY I? CAN/COULD YOU?



    1.- Chúng ta tạo thành câu hỏi với “can”, “may" và “could" như sau:

    Câu hỏi:

    Can
    May --------> I/He/She/It/We (etc.) open the door?
    Could



    2.- Chúng ta dùng "can", “may" và "could" để yêu cầu một thứ gì đó:

    Can etc. + I/we + have ...?
    Can I have a cup of tea?

    Could we have three tickets, please?
    Can I have some salt?



    3.- Chúng ta dùng "can", "may" hoặc "could" để xin phép làm một việc gì đó. “Could I” và “May I” được dùng trang trọng và lịch sự hơn "Can I":

    Can/May/ Could + I/We + INFINITIVE...?

    Could we look up it in the dictionary, please?
    Can I borrow your book, please?

    Chúng ta sử dụng "can" hoặc "may" để diễn đạt sự cho phép làm một việc gì đó:

    You can leave your luggage here. (Or... may leave...)

    Nếu chúng ta nói về những gì mọi người được phép làm nói chung, chớ không phải chỉ dành cho một người cụ thể nào, chúng ta dùng "can":

    People can drive on the roads when they are seventeen.

    Nhưng đối với các thông báo chính thức, chúng ta thường sử dụng "may":

    SLIPPERS MAY BE LEFT HERE.



    4.- Chúng ta dùng “Can you", “Could you” và “Would you” (nhưng không dùng "May you") khi chúng ta yêu cầu ai làm điều gì đó. “Could" và "would" được dùng trang trọng và lịch sự hơn “can”.

    Can/ Could/ Would + you + INFINITIVE ...?
    Could you help me with my bags?

    Ví dụ:

    Could you buy me a magazine?

    A: It’s hot today. Can you open the windows?
    B: Yes, of course.
    Lần sửa cuối bởi xathutreonhanhdudu, ngày 17-03-2012 lúc 11:52 AM.

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    Dạn dày sương gió xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu's Avatar
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    Re: Modal verbs



    CAN/COULD I? MAY I? CAN/COULD YOU?

    BÀI TẬP:

    A. Sắp xếp những từ trong ngoặc đơn ( ) theo đúng thứ tự để tạo thành câu hỏi.

    (have - a return ticket to London- could - please - I - ?)
    Could I have a return ticket to London, please?

    1. (please - I - may - a glass of lemonade - have - ?
    __________________________________________

    2. (we - listen to your new song - can - ?)
    _________________________________________

    3. (your computer - please - use - I - can - ?)
    ________________________________________

    4. (may - borrow - your laptop tomorrow night - I - ?)
    _________________________________________

    5. (please - the salt - pass - you - could - ?)
    ________________________________________

    6. (can - this letter for me - you - post - ?)
    _________________________________________

    B. Hãy xin phép làm một điều gì đó bằng cách sử dụng những từ trong ngoặc đơn ( ) và trong hộp.

    use your photocopier; use your computer; open the window; borrow your pen; turn off the TV


    SITUATION: You want to surf the internet.
    (may I) May I use your computer?

    1/ SITUATION: You want to write down a telephone number.
    (can I) ______________________________________

    2/ SITUATION: You want to take a rest.
    (can I ... please)_____________________________

    3/ SITUATION: You're feeling hot.
    (may I) ______________________________________

    4/ SITUATION: You need a photocopy of a letter.
    (may I ... please) ________________________________


    C. Hãy yêu cầu người khác làm những việc sau. Sử dụng những từ trong ngoặc đơn ( ) và cụm từ trong hộp.

    buy me a daily newspaper; tell me the time; make me a sweet cake; tell me the way to Big Ben; carry one of these cases


    PROBLEM: You're sick. You're in bed. You're bored.
    (can you ... please) Can you buy me a daily newspaper, please?

    1/ PROBLEM: Your suitcases are very big and heavy.
    (could you) _______________________________

    2/ PROBLEM: You're lost in London.
    (could you ... please) _______________________

    3/ PROBLEM: You've forgotten to put your watch on.
    (can you) __________________________________

    4/ PROBLEM: You're hungry. You're very tired.
    (can you ... please) ___________________________


    D. Chọn từ đúng từ những từ cho sẵn trong ngoặc đơn ( ), và điền nó vào khoảng trống.

    Could (May/Could) you give me one of these chairs, please?

    1/ In the street:
    Excuse me, officer, (could/may) you tell me the way to get to the bank?

    2/ At a railway station:
    A: Let's have our pizzas here.
    B: ______(Couldn't/Can't) you read? Look at the notice; it says:
    “FOOD_______ (MAY/COULD) NOT BE EATEN IN THIS WAITING ROOM.”

    3/ A: _______ (Could/May) you phone John about tomorrow's cocktail party?
    B: I_______(may not/can't/couldn't) phone him because he has lost his mobile.

    4/ A: ________ (May/Could) someone help me?
    B: What_______(may/can) I do to help you?
    A: We need to wash these dishes and to clean this table. Can you help?
    B: I’m afraid I_______(may not/can’t) wash the dishes because of my bad arm.
    Lần sửa cuối bởi xathutreonhanhdudu, ngày 28-03-2012 lúc 12:51 PM.

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    Re: 40. Can/could I? May I? Can/could you?

    Using MODALS:
    To show respect and politeness, most people use modal expressions when making requests.
    For example:
    Will you...?
    Would you...?
    Would you please...?
    Could you (please)...?
    Could you possibly...?
    Would you kindly...?
    Would you mind...?
    Would you be so kind as to...?
    Will you open the door for me?
    Would you open the door for me?
    Would you please open the door for me?
    Could you (please) open the door?
    Could you possibly open the door?
    Would you kindly open the door?
    Would you mind opening the door?
    Would you be so kind as to open the door?


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    Re: Modal verbs

    BASIC ENGLISH MODALS
    MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS are used to moderate the main verb, enhancing or restricting the verb to a certain context.
    The most common MODAL AUXILIARIESin English are:
    can
    could
    may
    should
    might
    will
    must
    would
    NOTICE how MODALS are used in the following sentences:
    I pay my taxes. General declaration of fact. Paying taxes is something I normally do.
    I can pay my taxes. Expresses ability. I have the means (funds) to pay.
    I might pay my taxes. Expresses possibility, but not certainty. Maybe I will pay; maybe I won't.
    I will pay my taxes. Expresses future intent. I resolve to do it at some later time.
    I should pay my taxes. Expresses mild obligation. It is required, and I expect to comply.
    I could pay my taxes. Expresses possibility. If I have nothing else to do with the money, I might pay taxes.
    I would pay my taxes. (In this case), expresses reservation. If I had the money (but I don't). . .
    I must pay my taxes. Expresses strong obligation. I am required and have to comply.

    MODALS are followed by only the base form of the verb and are not used alone unless there is a clear connection to the main verb.
    He must to finish his homework. WRONG
    He must finish his homework. CORRECT
    Jack could heard the bell. WRONG
    Jack could hear the bell. CORRECT
    Penny will going to the movie. WRONG
    Penny will go to the movie. CORRECT

    The English language has many ways of making requests. The most common involves using the IMPERATIVE and MODALS. See the examples below:
    Using the IMPERATIVE:
    The IMPERATIVE is the most simple form of the verb.When used, the subject of an IMPERATIVE SENTENCE is understood to be "you", although it is not usually spoken.



    Open the door.
    Will you help me?
    Yes, I will.
    Pick up your toys.
    Please help me.
    (You) open the door.
    You help me.
    Yes, I will(help you).
    (You) pick up your toys.
    (You) please help me.
    The IMPERATIVE is often used by persons in authority when speaking to subordinates, e.g. a parent to a child.
    Using MODALS:
    To show respect and politeness, most people use modal expressions when making requests.
    For example:
    Will you...?
    Would you...?
    Would you please...?
    Could you (please)...?
    Could you possibly...?
    Would you kindly...?
    Would you mind...?
    Would you be so kind as to...?
    Will you open the door for me?
    Would you open the door for me?
    Would you please open the door for me?
    Could you (please) open the door?
    Could you possibly open the door?
    Would you kindly open the door?
    Would you mind opening the door?
    Would you be so kind as to open the door?

    Common Problems With MODALS:
    1. Using "to" unnecessarily -
    Incorrect
    They going to meet us at the theatre.
    He should to eat his dinner.
    I had better to go now.
    You must not to use that pencil.
    Correct
    They are going to meet us at the theatre.
    He should eat his dinner.
    I had better go now.
    You must not use that pencil.
    2.Using anything other than the base form after a MODAL -
    John could heard the bell.
    Penny will going to the movie.
    John could hear the bell.
    Penny will go to the movie.
    3.Using 'Double' MODALS -
    You should ought to speak English.
    She might can help me.
    You ought to speak/should speak English.
    She might be able to help me.
    4.Omitting "be" in certain MODAL expressions -
    They going to meet us at the theatre.
    Jack supposed to take his medicine.
    They are going to meet us at the theatre.
    Jack is supposed to take his medicine.
    5.Using the wrong word order in questions -
    How I can help you?
    Where I should go for the meeting?
    How can I help you?
    Where should I go for the meeting?



    http://www.scglanguagetutorials.com/modals---001.php

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    Re: 40. Can/could I? May I? Can/could you?

    Requests and Permission: may, can, could, will, would

    Requests

    Requests in English are usually made in the form of general questions with the help of the modal verbs MAY, CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD. Requests are pronounced with rising intonation. Adding "please" to a request makes it more polite. As a rule, polite requests are not asked in the form of negative questions. (See Overview of Modal Verbsin the section Grammar and Practice for Intonation and Rhythm in the section Phonetics.)

    The modal verbs MAY, COULD, WILL, WOULD are used in making polite requests in speech and writing, in communication with strangers and with people you know. CAN in requests is considered to be less polite than the other modals in this group. CAN is generally used in informal requests, mostly in conversation with friends and family.

    Note the use of the pronouns "I, you". In requests, MAY is used in the form "May I"; WILL and WOULD are used in the forms "Will you" and "Would you"; COULD and CAN are used in both variants.

    May I speak to Tom Lee, please?
    May I borrow your pen, please?
    Could I speak to Tom Lee, please?
    Could you lend me thirty dollars till Wednesday, please?
    Can I borrow your pen, please?
    Can you tell me where the bank is, please?
    Will you please be quiet?
    Would you please ask her to call me?

    Note: The modal verb MIGHT may be used in making polite requests in the same way as MAY, but it is rarely used in this function.

    Typical responses to requests

    If you want to respond to a request positively, use the following typical responses to requests.

    Formal style: I'd be glad to. / I'd be happy to.
    Less formal: Yes, of course. / Of course. / Certainly.
    Informal: Sure. / No problem. / Uh-huh.

    Examples:

    Could you tell her that Roy James called? – I'd be glad to.
    Could you help me with this report? – Yes, of course. / Certainly.
    Could you tell me where the bank is, please? – Sure. It's right around the corner on Fifth Street, next to the post office.
    Could I borrow your calculator for a minute? – Sure, here it is.

    If for some reason you want to respond to a request negatively, use the following typical responses.

    Formal style: I'm afraid it's not possible. / I'm very sorry, but... / I'd like to, but... / I wish I could (help), but...
    Less formal: Sorry. / Sorry, I can't.

    Examples:

    Could you lend me a hundred dollars? – I'm afraid it's not possible. / I'm very sorry, but I can't lend you a hundred dollars now. / I wish I could help you, but I'm afraid I can't.
    Could I use your phone? – I'm sorry. I'm waiting for a phone call.
    May I speak to Mr. Brown, please? – Sorry, he is not in.
    Would you please ask him to call me at seven o'clock? – I'd like to, but I won't see him.
    Can I borrow your CD player? – Sorry, I need it today.

    Note:

    It is often incorrect to respond to requests using the same modal verb in short answers. Modal verbs form requests in the form of questions, and the meaning of the same modal verbs in statements is often different and might not fit logically. Compare the meanings of modal verbs in the following requests and in incorrect responses to them.

    Could I borrow your pen? (request) – Yes, you could. (possibility)
    Could you open the window, please? (request) – Yes, I could. (possibility)
    May I speak to Mr. Brown, please? (request) – Yes, you may. (permission)
    Would you please pass the salt? (request) – Yes, I would. (supposition)

    Requesting permission

    The structures "Could you, Can you, Will you, Would you" are used in requests to do something, while "May I, Could I, Can I" are used in making a request and asking for permission.
    Asking for permission to do something is also a request. Permission is asked in the form of affirmative questions with the help of MAY, COULD, CAN. MAY asks for formal permission, COULD is less formal, and CAN asks informal permission. MAY and COULD are more polite than CAN.

    Permission is given with the help of typical responses to requests mentioned above or with the help of MAY (formal permission) and CAN (informal permission). If permission is not given, "can't" is generally used. "May not" is used in formal situations. Look at these examples:

    Formal style: Mrs. Brown, may I stay at your house till Wednesday? – 1. Yes, you may. 2. No, you may not. / I'm afraid it's not possible.
    Less formal: Could I stay here till Wednesday? – 1. Yes, of course. / Certainly. / Yes, you can. 2. I'm afraid it's not possible. / Sorry, you can't.
    Informal: Can I stay here till Wednesday? – Sure.

    More examples with "can't":

    You can't do it!
    Sorry, you can't park here.
    Please tell him that he can't use my car without permission.


    The phrase "be allowed to"

    The substitute phrases "be allowed to do something, be not allowed to do something" can be used for describing permission in the present, future, and past.

    I am not allowed to leave the house.
    You will be allowed to see the patient soon.
    We were allowed to take his car.
    They weren't allowed to stay there.
    She wasn't allowed to go there alone.

    Note:

    CAN and MAY are also used in polite offers, often in an offer of help. Examples: Can I help you? (less formal) – May I help you? (more formal). Can I help you with anything? Can I help you with your home assignment? Can I help you (to) wash the dishes? Can I help? Can I offer you a drink?

    The phrase "Would you mind"

    The phrase "Would you mind" is widely used in making requests and asking for permission.

    Request to do something: Would you mind + gerund

    Would you mind opening the window? (Meaning: You ask someone to open the window.) – Of course not. / Not at all.
    Would you mind repeating what you said? (Meaning: You ask someone to repeat what he said.) – Of course not. I said...
    Would you mind not smoking here? (Meaning: You ask someone not to smoke here.) – Oh, I'm sorry.
    Would you mind not using my CD player without permission? – Oh, I'm sorry.

    Asking for permission: Would you mind + if I + simple past

    Would you mind if I opened the window? (Meaning: You ask someone whether you could open the window.) – Of course not. / Not at all. / No, I wouldn't mind.
    Would you mind if I smoked? (Meaning: You ask someone whether you could smoke here.) – I'd rather you didn't. I'm allergic to smoke.
    Would you mind if I didn't come to the meeting? I don't feel very well. (Meaning: You ask someone whether it will be all right if you don't come to the meeting.) – No, I wouldn't mind. / No, that would be all right.
    Would you mind if I didn't go to the party with you? I'm really tired.

    Note: Sometimes in informal situations in spoken English, the simple present is used instead of the simple past in the second part after "if", e.g., "Would you mind if I open the window?" instead of "Would you mind if I opened the window?" It is advisable for language learners to use only the standard variants in formal and informal polite requests in speech and writing.

    The phrase "Do you mind"

    In everyday English, the structure "Would you mind" is sometimes changed to "Do you mind". The structure "Do you mind" is a little less polite than "Would you mind".

    Do you mind opening the window?
    Do you mind if I open the window?
    Do you mind if I don't go to the party with you?

    Other phrases with WOULD

    WOULD is also used in other structures in polite requests to do something and in requests for permission.

    Would it be OK if I returned your book tomorrow?
    Would it be all right if I didn't go to the party with you?
    Would you be so kind as to send me the list of recommended literature?

    Note that the formal polite request "Would you be so kind as to" may be used sarcastically. Example: Would you be so kind as to remove your hand from my shoulder?

    The phrase "I would like"

    The phrase "I would like" expresses preference or desire to do or get something and is used in certain situations as a polite substitute for requests. In questions, "Would you like" is often used as a polite offer.

    I would like to speak to Mr. Smith, please.
    I'd like to know the telephone number for ABC Electronics, please.
    I'd like two tickets for tonight's concert, please.
    I'd like a cup of coffee with cream and sugar, please.
    Would you like to speak to Mr. James? Who would you like to speak to?
    Would you like to go to a concert tonight? – 1. I'd like that very much. 2. I'd like to, but I have to study.
    Would you like some more cake? – 1. Yes, please. 2. No, thank you.

    Requests in the form of negative questions

    As a rule, polite requests in English are not asked in the form of negative questions. Polite requests in Russian are usually in the form of negative questions. Russian students often make mistakes in requests in English because of this difference.

    Generally, negative questions have some emotion in them, e.g., surprise, expecting yes for an answer, mockery, annoyance, complaint. Requests in the form of negative questions can often sound impolite. Learners of English should avoid making requests in the form of negative questions. Examples of impolite requests, with the meaning they convey and the reaction they might provoke:

    Can't you give me a cup of tea? (Meaning: I'm surprised that you haven't offered me a cup of tea.) – Of course I can give you a cup of tea! I just didn't know that you wanted tea.
    Won't you help me? (Meaning: I see that you don't want to help me.) – Of course I will help you! Have I ever refused to help you?

    There are just a couple of situations in which requests in the form of negative questions are acceptable.

    For example, if a negative question is actually not a request but an offer, a negative question will sound more interested than an affirmative question. (There is some surprise in such negative questions too.)

    Won't you sit down? – Thank you.
    Won't you have some more potato salad? – 1. Yes, please. It's delicious. 2. No, thank you. I'm full.
    But you just got here! Can't you stay a little longer? – I'd like to, but I really have to go.

    Another possible case is when the speaker knows that there are reasons why a request can't be fulfilled but still hopes that something can be done. Affirmative questions are also common in such cases.

    I'm extremely sorry, but couldn't I return the money that I owe you after the holiday?
    I'm extremely sorry, but could I return the money that I owe you after the holiday?
    I'm sorry to ask about it, but wouldn't it be possible to postpone my trip to Rome?
    I'm sorry to ask about it, but would it be possible to postpone my trip to Rome?
    You wouldn't have a larger room, would you?

    Recommendations

    Use "Could you" for making a request, and "Could I" for making a request or for asking for permission. COULD is used in both formal and informal speech and writing. The phrase "Would you mind" is also very common in making requests or asking for permission, though it is a little more difficult to use than "Could you, Could I". Use typical affirmative or negative responses to requests. Do not use negative questions to make a request or ask for permission.

    http://usefulenglish.ru/grammar/requests-and-permission

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