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Chủ đề: Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    Adjectives can be identified using a number of formal criteria. However, we may begin by saying that they typically describe an attribute of a noun:


    cold weather
    large windows
    violent storms

    Some adjectives can be identified by their endings. Typical adjective endings include:

    -able/-ible achievable, capable, illegible, remarkable
    -al biographical, functional, internal, logical
    -ful beautiful, careful, grateful, harmful
    -ic cubic, manic, rustic, terrific
    -ive attractive, dismissive, inventive, persuasive
    -less breathless, careless, groundless, restless
    -ous courageous, dangerous, disastrous, fabulous


    However, a large number of very common adjectives cannot be identified in this way. They do not have typical adjectival form:
    bad
    bright
    clever
    cold
    common
    complete
    dark
    deep
    difficult
    distant
    elementary
    good
    great
    honest
    hot
    main
    morose
    old
    quiet
    real
    red
    silent
    simple
    strange
    wicked
    wide
    young



    As this list shows, adjectives are formally very diverse. However, they have a number of characteristics which we can use to identify them.

    ucl.ac.uk
    Lần sửa cuối bởi emcungyeukhoahoc, ngày 24-08-2013 lúc 01:14 PM.
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    Characteristics of Adjectives
    Đặc điểm của tính từ

    Adjectives can take a modifying word, such as very, extremely, or less, before them:

    very cold weather
    extremely large windows
    less violent storms

    Here, the modifying word locates the adjective on a scale of comparison, at a position higher or lower than the one indicated by the adjective alone. This characteristic is known as GRADABILITY. Most adjectives are gradable, though if the adjective already denotes the highest position on a scale, then it is non-gradable:
    my main reason for coming ~*my very main reason for coming
    the principal role in the play ~*the very principal role in the play





    As well as taking modifying words like very and extremely,adjectives also take different forms to indicate their position on a scale of comparison:

    big bigger biggest

    The lowest point on the scale is known as the ABSOLUTE form, the middle point is known as the COMPARATIVE form, and the highest point is known as the SUPERLATIVE form. Here are some more examples:
    Absolute
    Comparative
    Superlative
    dark
    darker
    darkest
    new
    newer
    newest
    old
    older
    oldest
    young
    younger
    youngest



    In most cases, the comparative is formed by adding -er , and the superlative is formed by adding -est, to the absolute form. However, a number of very common adjectives are irregular in this respect:
    Absolute
    Comparative
    Superlative
    good
    better
    best
    bad
    worse
    worst
    far
    farther
    farthest



    Some adjectives form the comparative and superlative using more and most respectively:
    Absolute
    Comparative
    Superlative
    important
    more important
    most important
    miserable
    more miserable
    most miserable
    recent
    more recent
    most recent
    Lần sửa cuối bởi emcungyeukhoahoc, ngày 24-08-2013 lúc 01:14 PM.
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

  3. #3
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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    Attributive and Predicative Adjectives

    Tính từ bổ nghĩa cho danh từ và tính từ làm vị ngữ

    Most adjectives can occur both before and after a noun:
    Hầu hết tính từ có thể đứng trước và sau danh từ :



    the blue sea ~ the sea is blue
    the old man ~ the man is old
    happy children ~ the children are happy

    Adjectives in the first position - before the noun - are called ATTRIBUTIVE adjectives. Those in the second position - after the noun - are called PREDICATIVE adjectives. Notice that predicative adjectives do not occur immediately after the noun. Instead, they follow a verb.
    Sometimes an adjective does occur immediately after a noun, especially in certain institutionalised expressions:

    the Governor General
    the Princess Royal
    times past

    We refer to these as POSTPOSITIVE adjectives. Postposition is obligatory when the adjective modifies a pronoun:

    something useful
    everyone present
    those responsible

    Postpositive adjectives are commonly found together with superlative, attributive adjectives:

    the shortest route possible
    the worst conditions imaginable
    the best hotel available

    Most adjectives can freely occur in both the attributive and the predicative positions. However, a small number of adjectives are restricted to one position only. For example, the adjective main (the main reason) can only occur in the attributive position (predicative: *the reason is main). Conversely, the adjective afraid (the child was afraid) can only occur predicatively (attributive: *an afraid child).
    Lần sửa cuối bởi emcungyeukhoahoc, ngày 24-08-2013 lúc 01:17 PM.
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    We have now looked at the main criteria for the adjective class - gradability, comparative and superlative forms, and the ability to occur attributively and predicatively. Most adjectives fulfil all these criteria, and are known as CENTRAL adjectives. Those which do not fulfil all the criteria are known as PERIPHERAL adjectives. We will now examine the adjective class in more detail.






    Inherent and Non-inherent Adjectives

    Tính từ mang ý nghĩa vốn có và không mang ý nghĩa vốn có


    Most attributive adjectives denote some attribute of the noun which they modify. For instance, the phrase a red car may be said to denote a car which is red. In fact most adjective-noun sequences such as this can be loosely reformulated in a similar way:
    an old man ~a man who is old
    difficult questions ~questions which are difficult
    round glasses ~glasses which are round


    This applies equally to postpositive adjectives:


    something understood ~something which is understood
    the people responsible ~the people who are responsible


    In each case the adjective denotes an attribute or quality of the noun, as the reformulations show. Adjectives of this type are known as INHERENT adjectives. The attribute they denote is, as it were, inherent in the noun which they modify.

    However, not all adjectives are related to the noun in the same way. For example, the adjective small in a small businessman does not describe an attribute of the businessman. It cannot be reformulated as a businessman who is small. Instead, it refers to a businessman whose business is small. We refer to adjectives of this type as NON-INHERENT adjectives. They refer less directly to an attribute of the noun than inherent adjectives do. Here are some more examples, showing the contrast betwen inherent and non-inherent:
    Inherent
    Non-inherent
    distant hills distant relatives
    a complete chapter a complete idiot
    a heavy burden a heavy smoker
    a social survey a social animal
    an old man an old friend







    Stative and Dynamic Adjectives
    Tính từ tĩnh và tính từ động


    As their name suggests, STATIVE adjectives denote a state or condition, which may generally be considered permanent, such as big, red, small. Stative adjectives cannot normally be used in imperative constructions:


    *Be big/red/small

    Further, they cannot normally be used in progressive constructions:


    *He is being big/red/small

    In contrast, DYNAMIC adjectives denote attributes which are, to some extent at least, under the control of the one who possesses them. For instance, brave denotes an attribute which may not always be in evidence (unlike red, for example), but which may be called upon as it is required. For this reason, it is appropriate to use it in an imperative:


    Be brave!

    Dynamic adjectives include:
    calm
    careful
    cruel
    disruptive
    foolish
    friendly
    good
    impatient
    mannerly
    patient
    rude
    shy
    suspicious
    tidy
    vacuous
    vain



    All dynamic adjectives can be used in imperatives (Be careful!, Don't be cruel!), and they can also be used predicatively in progressive constructions:


    Your son is being disruptive in class
    My parents are being foolish again
    We're being very patient with you


    The majority of adjectives are stative. The stative/dynamic contrast, as it relates to adjectives, is largely a semantic one, though as we have seen it also has syntactic implications.
    Lần sửa cuối bởi emcungyeukhoahoc, ngày 24-08-2013 lúc 01:33 PM.
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    Nominal Adjectives
    Tính từ có vai trò như danh từ

    Certain adjectives are used to denote a class by describing one of the attributes of the class. For example, the poor denotes a class of people who share a similar financial status. Other nominal adjectives are:

    the old
    the sick
    the wealthy
    the blind

    the innocent

    A major subclass of nominal adjectives refers to nationalities:


    the French
    the British
    the Japanese

    However, not all nationalities have corresponding nominal adjectives. Many of them are denoted by plural, proper nouns:


    the Germans
    the Russians
    the Americans
    the Poles

    Nominal adjectives do not refer exclusively to classes of people. Indeed some of them do not denote classes at all:


    the opposite
    the contrary
    the good

    Comparative and superlative forms can also be nominal adjectives:


    the best is yet to come
    the elder of the two
    the greatest of these
    the most important among them

    We refer to all of these types as nominal adjectives because they share some of the characteristics of nouns (hence `nominal') and some of the characteristics of adjectives. They have the following nominal characteristics:

    they are preceded by a determiner (usually the definite article the)

    they can be modified by adjectives (the gallant French, the unfortunate poor)
    They have the following adjectival features:

    they are gradable (the very old, the extremely wealthy)
    many can take comparative and superlative forms (the poorer, the poorest)
    Lần sửa cuối bởi emcungyeukhoahoc, ngày 24-08-2013 lúc 01:43 PM.
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

  6. #6
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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    Adjectives and Nouns
    Tính từ và Danh từ

    We have seen that attributive adjectives occur before a noun which they modify, for example, red in red car. We need to distinguish these clearly from nouns which occur in the same position, and fulfil the same syntactic function. Consider the following:

    rally car
    saloon car
    family car


    Here, the first word modifies the second, that is, it tells us something further about the car. For example, a rally car is a car which is driven in rallies. These modifiers occur in the same position as red in the example above, but they are not adjectives. We can show this by applying our criteria for the adjective class.

    Firstly, they do not take very:

    *a very rally car
    *a very saloon car
    *a very family car

    Secondly, they do not have comparative or superlative forms:

    *rallier *ralliest / *more rally / *most rally
    *salooner *saloonest / *more saloon / *most saloon
    *familier *familiest / *more family / *most family


    And finally, they cannot occur in predicative position:

    *the car is rally
    *the car is saloon
    *the car is family


    So although these words occupy the typical adjective position, they are not adjectives. They are nouns.

    However, certain adjectives are derived from nouns, and are known as DENOMINAL adjectives (Tính từ có nguồn gốc là danh từ). Examples include:

    a mathematical puzzle [`a puzzle based on mathematics']
    a biological experiment [`an experiment in biology']
    a wooden boat [`a boat made of wood']


    Denominals include adjectives which refer to nationality:

    a Russian lady [`a lady who comes from Russia']
    German goods [`goods produced in Germany']


    Denominal adjectives of this type should be carefully distinguished from nominal adjectives denoting nationalities. Compare:
    Nominal Adjective: The French are noted for their wines
    Denominal Adjective: The French people are noted for their wines
    Lần sửa cuối bởi emcungyeukhoahoc, ngày 24-08-2013 lúc 01:53 PM.
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

  7. #7
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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    Participial Adjectives

    Tính từ phân từ

    We saw in an earlier section that many adjectives can be identified by their endings. Another major subclass of adjectives can also be formally distinguished by endings, this time by -ed or -ing endings:
    -ed form computerized, determined, excited, misunderstood, renowned, self-centred, talented, unknown
    -ing form annoying, exasperating, frightening, gratifying, misleading, thrilling, time-consuming, worrying
    Remember that some -ed forms, such as misunderstood and unknown, do not end in -ed at all. This is simply a cover term for this form. Adjectives with -ed or -ing endings are known as PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES, because they have the same endings as verb participles (he was training for the Olympics, he had trained for the Olympics). In some cases there is a verb which corresponds to these adjectives (to annoy, to computerize, to excite, etc), while in others there is no corresponding verb (*to renown, *to self-centre, *to talent). Like other adjectives, participial adjectives can usually be modified by very, extremely, or less (very determined, extremely self-centred, less frightening, etc). They can also take more and most to form comparatives and superlatives (annoying, more annoying, most annoying). Finally, most participial adjectives can be used both attributively and predicatively:
    Attributive
    Predicative
    That's an irritating noise That noise is irritating
    This is an exciting film This film is exciting
    He's a talented footballer That footballer is talented
    Many participial adjectives, which have no corresponding verb, are formed by combining a noun with a participle:

      • alcohol-based chemicals
        battle-hardened soldiers
        drug-induced coma
        energy-saving devices
        fact-finding mission
        purpose-built accommodation
    These, too, can be used predicatively (the chemicals are alcohol-based, the soldiers were battle-hardened, etc). When participial adjectives are used predicatively, it may sometimes be difficult to distinguish between adjectival and verbal uses:

      • [1] the workers are striking
    In the absence of any further context, the grammatical status of striking is indeterminate here. The following expansions illustrate possible adjectival [1a] and verbal [1b] readings of [1]:
      • [1a] the workers are very striking in their new uniforms (=`impressive', `conspicuous') [1b] the workers are striking outside the factory gates (=`on strike')
    Consider the following pair:
      • [2] the noise is annoying
        [3] the noise is annoying the neighbours
    In [2], we can modify annoying using very:
      • [2a] the noise is (very) annoying
    But we cannot modify it in the same way in [3]:
      • [3a] *the noise is (very) annoying the neighbours
    The acceptability of [2a] indicates that annoying is an adjective in this construction. In [3], the verbal nature of annoying is indicated by the fact that we cannot add very , as in [3a]. It is further indicated by the presence of the neighbours (the direct object) after annoying. Notice also that we can turn [3] into a passive sentence (the neighbours were annoyed by the noise). In this case, annoying is the main verb of the sentence, and it is preceded by the progressive auxiliary verb is. In [2], there is only one verb, the main verb is. We can distinguish between the following pairs using the same criteria:
    Adjectival
    Verbal
    This film is terrifying This film is terrifying the children
    Your comments are alarming Your comments are alarming the people
    The defendant's answers were misleading The defendant's answers were misleading the jury
    We can also identify -ing forms as verbal if it is possible to change the -ing form into a non-progressive verb:
    Progressive
    Non-progressive
    The children are dancing The children dance
    My eyes are stinging My eyes sting
    The wood is drying The wood dries
    Compare these changes from progressive to non-progressive with the following:
    the work is rewarding ~*the work rewards
    the job was exacting ~*the job exacted
    your paper was interesting ~*your paper interested
    In these instances, the inability to produce fully acceptable non-progressive sentences indicates adjectival use.
    Similar indeterminacy occurs with -ed forms. Again, we can generally use very to determine whether the -ed word is adjectival or verbal:
    The bomb was detonated ~*The bomb was very detonated
    This document is hand-written ~*This document is very hand-written
    My house was built in only twelve weeks ~*My house was very built in only twelve weeks
    Ten people were killed ~*Ten people were very killed
    The inability to supply very in these cases indicates a verbal rather than an adjectival construction. However, this test is less reliable with -ed forms than it is with -ing forms, since very can sometimes be supplied in both the adjectival and the verbal constructions:
    Adjectival
    Verbal
    I was embarrassed
    I was very embarrassed
    I was embarrassed by your behaviour
    I was very embarrassed by your behaviour
    She was surprised
    She was very surprised
    She was surprised by my reaction
    She was very surprised by my reaction
    The presence of a by-agent phrase (by your behaviour, by my reaction) indicates that the -ed form is verbal. Conversely, the presence of a complement, such as a that-clause, indicates that it is adjectival. Compare the following two constructions:
    Adjectival: The jury was convinced that the defendant was innocent
    Verbal: The jury was convinced by the lawyer's argument
    Here are some further examples of adjectival constructions (with complements) and verbal constructions (with by-agent phrases):
    Adjectival
    Verbal
    I was delighted to meet you again I was delighted by his compliments
    John is terrified of losing his job John is terrified by his boss
    I was frightened that I'd be late I was frightened by your expression
    I was disappointed to hear your decision I was disappointed by your decision
    If the -ed form is verbal, we can change the passive construction in which it occurs into an active one:
    Passive: I was delighted by his compliments
    Active: His compliments delighted me
    For more on active and passive constructions, see...

    As we have seen, discriminating between adjectival and verbal constructions is sometimes facilitated by the presence of additional context, such as by-agent phrases or adjective complements. However, when none of these indicators is present, grammatical indeterminacy remains. Consider the following examples from conversational English:
      • And you know if you don't know the simple command how to get out of something you're sunk [S1A-005-172] But that's convenient because it's edged with wood isn't it [S1A-007-97]
    With -ed and -ing participial forms, there is no grammatical indeterminacy if there is no corresponding verb. For example, in the job was time-consuming, and the allegations were unfounded, the participial forms are adjectives. Similarly, the problem does not arise if the main verb is not be. For example, the participial forms in this book seems boring, and he remained offended are all adjectives. Compare the following:

    John was depressed
    John felt depressed
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    The Ordering of Adjectives

    Thứ tự tính từ

    When two or more adjectives come before a noun, their relative order is fixed to a certain degree. This means, for instance, that while complex mathematical studies is grammatically acceptable, mathematical complex studies is less so. Similarly:
    a huge red bomber ~*a red huge bomber
    a long narrow road ~*a narrow long road
    the lovely little black Japanese box ~*the Japanese black little lovely box

    Here we will discuss some of the most common sequences which occur, though these should not be seen as ordering rules. Counter examples can often be found quite easily.
    Central adjectives, as we saw earlier, are adjectives which fulfil all the criteria for the adjective class. In this sense, they are more "adjectival" than, say, denominal adjectives, which also have some of the properties of nouns.
    This distinction has some significance in the ordering of adjectives. In general, the more adjectival a word is, the farther from the noun it will be. Conversely, the less adjectival it is (the more nominal), the nearer to the noun it will be. The relative order of these adjective types, then, is:
    Sequence (1): CENTRAL -- DENOMINAL -- NOUN
    This is the ordering found in complex mathematical studies, for instance, and also in the following examples:

      • expensive Russian dolls
        heavy woollen clothes
        huge polar bears
    Colour adjectives are also central adjectives, but if they co-occur with another central adjective, they come after it: Sequence (2): CENTRAL -- COLOUR -- NOUN

      • expensive green dolls
        heavy black clothes
        huge white bears
    and before denominal adjectives: Sequence (3): COLOUR -- DENOMINAL -- NOUN

      • green Russian dolls
        black woollen clothes
        white polar bears
    Participial adjectives also follow central adjectives: Sequence (4): CENTRAL -- PARTICIPIAL -- DENOMINAL -- NOUN

      • expensive carved Russian dolls
        heavy knitted woollen clothes
        huge dancing polar bears
    (1) - (4) account for many sequences of up to three adjectives, in which each adjective is a different type. In practice it is rare to find more than three attributive adjectives together, especially if they are all different types. However, such a sequence may occur:
      • certain expensive green Russian dolls
    Here the sequence is: Sequence (5): NON-GRADABLE -- CENTRAL -- COLOUR -- DENOMINAL -- NOUN
    Non-gradable adjectives, in fact, are always first in an adjective sequence. Here are some more examples:
    Sequence (5a): NON-GRADABLE -- CENTRAL -- NOUN

      • certain difficult problems
    Sequence (5b): NON-GRADABLE -- PARTICIPIAL -- NOUN
      • sheer unadulterated nonsense
    Sequence (5c): NON-GRADABLE -- DENOMINAL -- NOUN
      • major medical advances
    So far we have looked at sequences in which each adjective is a different type. However, we very often find adjectives of the same type occurring together:
      • big old buildings
        beautiful little flowers
        rich young people
    Here all the adjectives are central adjectives, and in sequences like these it is much more difficult to determine the general principles governing their order. Several schemes have been proposed, though none is completely satisfactory or comprehensive. The ordering of adjectives is influenced to some degree by the presence of premodification. If one or more of the adjectives in a sequence is premodified, say, by very, then it generally comes at the start of the sequence.

      • The laryngograph provides us with a very accurate non-invasive physical measure of voice [S2A-056-95]
    It would be unusual, perhaps, to find very accurate elsewhere in this sequence:
      • ?The laryngograph provides us with a non-invasive very accurate physical measure of voice ?The laryngograph provides us with a non-invasive physical very accurate measure of voice
    Conversely, adjective order restricts the degree to which attributive adjectives may be premodified. Consider the following:
      • a wealthy young businessman
        a very wealthy young businessman
    We cannot modify young in this example, while keeping wealthy and young in the same relative order:
      • *a wealthy very young businessman
    Nor can we move young to the first position and modify it there, while retaining the same degree of acceptability:
    ?a very young wealthy businessman

    ucl.ac.uk
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

  9. #9
    Vượt ngàn trùng sóng emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc's Avatar
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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)


    Tài liệu khác về Tính từ phân từ (Participial Adjectives)


    PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES
    -Ing and -Ed
    related to emotive verbs


    Past participles (-ed) are used to say how people feel.

    -ED participle refers to the experiencer (the one feeling the emotion)
    Present participles (-ing) are used to describe the people or things that cause the feelings.

    -Ing participle refers to the actor (the one/thing causing the emotion)
    The lesson interests Anne. Anne is very interested in the lesson. The lesson is interesting (to Anne).
    Sports interest Max. Max is interested in sports.
    He’s a very interested basketball fan.
    Sports are interesting (to Max).
    One very interesting sport is basketball.
    The movie bored Bob. Bob was bored by the movie. Bib didn’t enjoy the movie because it was boring.

    Slapstick comedy doesn't amuse Corin. Corin is not amused by slapstick comedy.
    He is an unamused victim.
    Slapstick isn't amusing (to Corin).
    However, she does like other amusing forms of comedy.
    John’s loud stereo annoys his neighbors. John’s neighbors are annoyed by his loud stereo.
    Several annoyed neighbors complained to the manager.
    John’s loud stereo is annoying (to his neighbors).
    They have had enough annoying noise for one weekend.

    Other participial adjectives of this type

    amazed
    amused
    annoyed
    bored
    charmed
    confused
    convincing
    damaged
    depressed
    disappointed
    embarrassed
    excited
    amazing
    amusing
    annoying
    boring
    charming
    confusing
    convincing
    damaging
    depressing
    disappointing
    embarrassing
    exciting
    exhausted
    fascinated
    frightened
    frustrated
    interested
    puzzled
    relaxed
    satisfied
    shocked
    terrified
    tired
    thrilled
    exhausting
    fascinating
    frightening
    frustrating
    interesting
    puzzling
    relaxing
    satisfying
    shocking
    terrifying
    tiring
    thrilling

    Other aspects of active and passive participles
    (from Swan’s Practical English Usage)
    When -ing forms are used like adjectives or adverbs, they have similar meanings to active verbs. falling leaves
    a meat-eating animal
    She walked out smiling.
    (= leaves that fall)
    (= an animal that eats meat)
    (= She was smiling)
    Most past participles have passive meanings when they are used like adjectives or adverbs. a broken heart.
    He lived alone, forgotten by everybody.
    (= a heart that has been broken)
    (= He had been forgotten by everybody.)
    Exceptions: active past participles
    A few intransitive verbs have past participles that can be used as adjectives with active meanings, especially before nouns. a fallen leaf
    advanced students


    developed countries
    increased activity
    vanished civilizations
    a retired general
    (=a leaf that has fallen)
    (=students who have advanced to a high level, not students who have been advanced...)
    a grown-up daughter
    and escaped prisoner
    faded colors
    swollen ankles
    Some more past participles can only be used in this way in phrases with adverbs. a well-read person
    a much-traveled man
    recently-arrived immigrants
    (but not a read person)
    Worry can be used actively and passively. I worry about you. I’m worried about you.

    faculty.washington.edu
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

  10. #10
    Vượt ngàn trùng sóng emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc has a reputation beyond repute emcungyeukhoahoc's Avatar
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    Adjectives (tài liệu khá đầy đủ về tính từ)

    Tài liệu khác về Tính từ phân từ (Participial Adjectives)

    Participle Adjectives

    Some participles (like 'bored' or 'boring') can be used as adjectives. These are used in a slightly different way from normal adjectives. We usually use the past participle (ending in -ed) to talk about how someone feels:
    • I was really bored during the flight (NOT: I was really boring during the flight).
    • She's interested in history (NOT: She's really interesting in history).
    • John's frightened of spiders (NOT: John's frightening of spiders).
    We usually use the present participle (ending in -ing) to talk about the person, thing, or situation which has caused the feeling:
    • It was such a long, boring flight (so I was bored).
    • I read a really interesting book about history (so I was interested).
    • Many people find spiders frightening (so they're frightened when they see spiders).
    Be careful! 'I'm boring' is very different from 'I'm bored'! 'I'm boring' means I cause other people to be bored. This is not good! Here are some examples of when one person causes a feeling in another person:
    • I was talking to such a boring guy at the party. He talked about himself for an hour!
    • She's a really interesting woman. She's lived all over the world and speaks five languages.
    • My maths teacher at school was really frightening! He was always shouting at the students.
    These participle adjectives make their comparative by using 'more' (not -er) and their superlative by using 'most' (not -est):
    • I was more frightened of dogs than spiders when I was a child.
    • That book is more boring than this one.
    • I think Dr Smith's lesson was more interesting than Dr Brown's.
    • The 24 hours on the flight to Australia was the most bored I've ever been.
    • I think this is the most interesting talk we've heard today.
    • It was the most frightening film that he'd ever seen.
    Participle Adjectives Exercise 1 (based on the list below)
    Participle Adjectives Exercise 2 (based on the list below) List of common -ed and -ing adjectives

    alarming
    What an alarming noise!
    alarmed
    I was alarmed by the loud bang.
    amusing
    That TV programme is really amusing.
    amused
    He was amused to hear his little son singing in the bath.
    boring
    I've never seen such a boring film!
    bored
    The students looked bored as the teacher talked and talked.
    confusing
    I find these instructions very confusing! Could you come and help me?
    confused
    I was confused, because I asked two people and they told me two different things.
    depressing
    This weather is depressing! Is it ever going to stop raining?
    depressed
    I was feeling depressed, so I stayed at home with hot chocolate and a good book.
    embarrassing
    That is the most embarrassing photo! I look terrible!
    embarrassed
    John was really embarrassed when he fell over in front of his new girlfriend.
    exciting
    It's a really exciting book. I couldn't wait to find out what happened at the end.
    excited
    I'm so excited! I'm going on holiday tomorrow!
    exhausting
    I hate doing housework! It's exhausting!
    exhausted
    Julie was so exhausted after her exams, she spent the next three days sleeping.
    fascinating
    The brain is fascinating, isn't it? It's amazing how much it can do.
    fascinated
    Joan was fascinated by her grandmother's stories of life in the 1920s.
    frightening
    What a frightening film! I don't want to walk home on my own now!
    frightened
    I was really frightened of bees when I was little, but I don't mind them now.
    frustrating
    It's frustrating when you want to say something in another language, but you don't know the word.
    frustrated
    I tried all morning to send an email, but it wouldn't work. I was so frustrated!
    interesting
    That was a very interesting book.
    interested
    She's interested in animals, so she's thinking of studying to be a vet.
    overwhelming
    I find London a bit overwhelming. It's so busy and noisy.
    overwhelmed
    Julie felt overwhelmed. She'd moved house, got a new job and was learning to drive, all at the same time.
    relaxing
    A nice hot bath is so relaxing after a long day.
    relaxed
    She was so relaxed, sitting in front of the fire, that she didn't want to move.
    satisfying
    John loves his new job as a teacher. He says it's very satisfying when he makes a student understand.
    satisfied
    I'm very satisfied that I managed to order the meal in French.
    shocking
    What a shocking crime! It's terrible.
    shocked
    I was shocked when my co-worked admitted stealing some money.
    surprising
    It's surprising how many people don't want to travel to another country.
    surprised
    She was surprised when she arrived at her class and found the other students doing an exam. She'd thought it was a normal lesson.
    terrifying
    What a terrifying dog! It's huge!
    terrified
    My little son is terrified of the dark. We always leave a light on in his room at night.
    thrilling
    What thrilling music! It's some of the most beautiful music I've ever heard.
    thrilled
    I was thrilled to win first prize in the competition.
    tiring
    My job is really tiring. I don't get home until 10pm sometimes.
    tired
    David's too tired to come to the cinema tonight. He's going to go to bed early.

    Participle Adjectives Exercise 1 (based on the list above)
    Participle Adjectives Exercise 2 (based on the list above)


    perfect-english-grammar.com
    I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.

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