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Chủ đề: It

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    It

    "It" as Subject Placeholder

    Reposition content with a pronoun


    That Subject Clause vs. It Placeholder


    To state an opinion about an observation or fact, that or what and a content clause is placed in the subject position followed by be (seems, appears, should be, may, be ought to be, etc.) and the opinion—an adjective phrase or a noun phrase.
    OBSERVATION OR FACT OPINION
    THAT + CLAUSE [BE] AdjP / NP
    That Fred is a funny comedian is obvious to all. (AdP)
    That they look alike is clear to everyone. (AdjP)
    That he can imitate Barack Obama surprises² everyone. (NP)
    That the President thinks he is funny is a pleasant surprise. (NP)
    That Fred can do such a good impression is a wonder. (NP)
    That Fred retired from Saturday Night Live is a pity. (NP)
    What he said was funny. (Adj)
    What inspires him is a mystery. (NP)



    It allows for the grouping of opinion content at the beginning of the clause so that the statement of fact can be isolated at the end of the clause where it receives emphasis. (It is a pronoun for the content mentioned later.)
    OPINION OBSERVATION OR FACT
    IT [BE] AdjP / NP THAT + CLAUSE
    It is obvious to all
    that he is a funny comedian.
    It is clear to everyone that they look alike.
    It surprises everyone that he can imitate Barack Obama.
    It is a pleasant surprise that the President thinks he is funny.
    It is a wonder that Fred can do such a good impression.
    It is a pity that Fred retired from Saturday night Live.
    It was funny what he said.
    It is a mystery what inspires him.




    ¹ Static verbs express states that exist, no action is taken. For this reason, they are mostly nonprogressive. These verbs have relatively little meaning other than relating the subject to the complement, which is usually an adjective or participle modifier. (be, acts, appears, seems, becomes, and so on.) See Static Verbs.
    ² States of Emotion: amaze, astonish, bewilder, confound, delight, disappoint, impress, please, satisfied, startle, stupefy, overwhelm.
    Related pages:
    There in Subject PositionMilk is on the table. → There is milk on the table.
    It as Subject Placeholder — That he is very funny is obvious. → It is obvious that he is very funny.
    "It is" + Adj + Infin — Finding the answers is hard. → It is hard to find the answers.
    "It seems" / "It occurs" / "It is likely" — It seems odd to me that he didn't say anything.
    "It takes" + Infinitive — To get ready takes ten minutes. → It takes ten minutes to get ready.
    "Identifying 'be'"Rain is there. There is rain; Reciprocal Property (A + B = B + A)
    It / This Reference — Gizmo developed a new app. It is amazing. Gizmo managed to develop a new app. This is amazing.
    It Clefts (extraposition) — What he said was amazing. It was amazing what he said.



    Source:
    http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/clause6.html

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    Re: It

    "It" in Common Expressions

    Placing emphasis elsewhere in the clause




    It in Common Expressions


    A clause may be placed at the beginning of the clause followed by a verb and its complement (predicate). However, long or complicated items are often put towards the end of a sentence.
    1. CLAUSE + [BE] + ADJECTIVE
    To do the work this way is easy.
    The "heavy content" in the sentence comes first.
    Driving all day was hard.
    That he was lying was clear.
    2. CLAUSE + TAKES X AMOUNT
    Boiling an egg takes three minutes. (gerund)
    To house-train a puppy takes (requires) a lot of newspaper.
    To succeed takes hard work.
    3. CLAUSE + MAKES
    Eating chocolate makes me happy.
    To save energy makes sense.
    Where I turn makes no difference.
    4. CLAUSE + EMOTIONAL STATIC VERB
    That you would say such a thing pleases me.
    That she is still in love amazes us.
    That you are unhappy surprises me.
    That he is regretful disappoints me.
    5. CLAUSE + VERB
    ¹That she might change her mind occurred to me.
    ¹That she came along by chance happened.
    6. CLAUSE + NOUN
    That he escaped alive is a miracle.
    That world is round is a fact.
    That you couldn't come is a pity. (unfortunate)
    That you couldn't come is a shame. (unfortunate)


    It serves as a placeholder for the subject so that the heavier (wordier) part of the sentence can be moved to the end of the sentence.
    IT [BE] ADJECTIVE INFIN/GER/THAT + CLAUSE
    It is easy to do the work this way [doing the work this way.].
    The longer content is mentioned last.
    It was hard driving all day [to drive all day.]
    It was clear (that) he was lying.
    IT TAKES X INFINITIVE
    It takes three minutes to boil an egg. (gerund→infinitive)
    It takes a lot of newspapers to house-train a puppy.
    It takes hard work to succeed.
    IT MAKES [NOUN] THAT + CLAUSE
    It makes me happy to eat chocolate.
    It makes sense to save energy.
    It makes no difference where I turn.
    IT (STATIVE VERB) THAT + CLAUSE
    It pleases me that you would say such a thing.
    It amazes us that she is still in love.
    It surprises me that you are unhappy.
    It disappoints me that he is regretful.
    IT VERB THAT + CLAUSE
    It occurred to me that she might change her mind.
    It happened that she came along by chance.
    IT [BE] NOUN THAT + CLAUSE
    It's a miracle (that) he escaped alive.
    It's a fact (that) the world is round.
    It's a pity (that) you couldn't come.
    It's a shame (that) he couldn't come.


    ¹ These particular Intransitive Verbs (occur and happen) may be used in this way.


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    Re: It

    Common Mistakes

    Errors and Solutions



    Error and Solution

    That you are unhappy here*is surprising me. (Don't use progressive.)
    is + surprising (progressive verb form)
    It looks he regrets what he did.
    It ashamed that he did not join us for dinner.
    It is happened that they just called me as I was calling them.

    It is surprising to me that you are unhappy here.
    is + surprising (participial adjective)
    It appears (that) he regrets what he did.
    It is a shame that he did not join us for dinner.
    (The verb is "be" not "ashame". The noun phrase "a shame" means "a lost opportunity".)
    It happened that they just called me as I was calling them.

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